This is the first time the disease has been detected in West Africa. Cases were first reported from forested areas in south-eastern Guinea. The outbreak has rapidly evolved and several districts and Conakry have reported cases and deaths caused by EVD.
Retrospective analysis indicates that the first case of the disease may have occurred at the end of An month-old boy in a small village in Guinea became ill and died in late December, and the disease began to spread.
Through the fall ofthe epidemic was ongoing in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Nigeria and Senegal had small outbreaks related to importations from neighboring countries, but public health authorities there were able to contain spread of the disease.
Several cases and deaths were reported from Mali, but spread was limited. In total, by the time the epidemic was over in March11, confirmed, probable, and suspected deaths occurred.
Total EVD cases numbered 28, Transmission of the disease was limited to West African countries, with the exception of several transmissions in healthcare settings in Europe and the United States.
Additionally, plasma transfusions from convalescent patients and an experimental antibody preparation have been used to treat certain patients.
It is not possible to say at this time whether these treatments have had an effect on the course of the disease in the patients who received them.
Ebola virus was first identified in By the end of that year, two related strains of the virus were known--Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan. Three other strains are now known to exist. Vaccine development began in the late s: Because EVD outbreaks are rare and have, untilbeen controlled quickly, commercial vaccine manufacturers have demonstrated little urgency in advancing vaccines through clinical trials.
That changed in Ebola Zaire is the strain of the virus that is responsible for the outbreak; accordingly, all of the vaccine candidates being advanced are designed to prevent that strain.
If these vaccines work for Ebola Zaire, it is very likely that the same principles can be applied to the other strains.
Vesicular stomatitis virus VSV can infect humans though this is a self-limited infection. A safe VSV vaccine for animals has been developed for animal use but it is not currently marketed in the United States.
This vaccine uses an adenovirus to deliver key Ebola antigens to human cells. Adenoviruses can cause a variety of diseases, but attenuated adenoviruses are safe and have been studied as vaccine vectors.
Versions of the vaccine, which have also delivered both Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan antigens as well as Marburg virus antigens, have been tested in macaques.
This approach has been shown in a variety of settings to yield a robust immune response to the antigen of interest. The first dose of the vaccine uses a DNA vaccine that primes the immune system to make Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan surface proteins; the boost vaccine is based on a recombinant adenovirus vector that delivers an Ebola Zaire surface protein.
In many cases, trial participants will be those at high risk of contracting the disease, such as healthcare workers and family members of people who have EVD.Overview of Ebola research – March 4 vaccine with a second dose 4 weeks later, and to compare this to a heterologous boost with the same ebola virus insert expressed by a.
epidemiological history of EHF can make the di erential diagnosis Nooshin Bagherani () An Overview on Ebola. Olopade CO () Drug and vaccine access in the ebola epidemic: advising.
The Scientific Method in Vaccine History. U.S. Military and Vaccine History. Vaccination Exemptions.
Vaccine Injury Compensation Programs. Vaccine Testing and Vulnerable Human Subjects. Vaccine Information  Different Types of Vaccines Ebola Virus Disease and Ebola Vaccines. 23 December – An experimental Ebola vaccine was highly protective against the deadly virus in a major trial, according to results published today in The Lancet.
The vaccine is the first to prevent infection from one of the most lethal known pathogens, and the findings add weight to early.
The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28, cases and 11, deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication.
Ebola Virus And The United States - The Ebola virus has come and gone through the United States, West Africa, and many other countries multiple times throughout history.