Anika Koenig Sociologus, Volume 65, Issue 1, p. We understand technology as a device which assists the making of kinship that is situated in political, legal, and affective spheres and which therefore should be understood in a much broader way than just referring to the biotechnological manipulation of body substances. The term assisted reproductive technologies ARTs refers to the tech- nological means of manipulating gametes in order to conceive a child. In this context, the Enlightenment and its effects were particularly influential.
Pre-Galtonian philosophies[ edit ] The philosophy was most famously expounded by Platowho believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state.
Mates, in Plato's Republic, would be chosen by a "marriage number" in which the quality of the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of high numbers. In theory, this would lead to predictable results and the improvement of the human race.
However, Plato acknowledged the failure of the "marriage number" since "gold soul" persons could still produce "bronze soul" children. Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome Athens  and Spartapracticed infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection.
In Sparta, newborns were inspected by the city's elders, who decided the fate of the infant. If the child was deemed incapable of living, it was usually exposed   in the Apothetae near the Taygetus mountain. Trials for babies included bathing them in wine and exposing them to the elements.
To Sparta, this would ensure only the strongest survived and procreated. In addition, patriarchs in Roman society were given the right to "discard" infants at their discretion.
This was often done by drowning undesired newborns in the Tiber River. Commenting on the Roman practice of eugenics, the philosopher Seneca wrote that: Yet this is not the work of anger, but of reason - to separate the sound from the worthless".
Sir Francis Galton systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his half-cousin Charles Darwin during the s and s.
After reading Darwin's Origin of SpeciesGalton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization.
He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity", a phrase he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common " regression towards the mean ".
Galton's basic argument was "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans although neither he nor Darwin yet had a working model of this type of heredity.
He concluded since one could use artificial selection to exaggerate traits in other animals, one could expect similar results when applying such models to humans. As he wrote in the introduction to Hereditary Genius: I propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance, under exactly the same limitations as are the form and physical features of the whole organic world.
Consequently, as it is easy, notwithstanding those limitations, to obtain by careful selection a permanent breed of dogs or horses gifted with peculiar powers of running, or of doing anything else, so it would be quite practicable to produce a highly gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations.
Galton did not propose any selection methods; rather, he hoped a solution would be found if social mores changed in a way that encouraged people to see the importance of breeding.
He first used the word eugenic in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development,  a book in which he meant "to touch on various topics more or less connected with that of the cultivation of race, or, as we might call it, with 'eugenic' questions".
He included a footnote to the word "eugenic" which read: That is, with questions bearing on what is termed in Greek, eugenes namely, good in stock, hereditary endowed with noble qualities. This, and the allied words, eugeneia, etc.
We greatly want a brief word to express the science of improving stock, which is by no means confined to questions of judicious mating, but which, especially in the case of man, takes cognizance of all influences that tend in however remote a degree to give to the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable than they otherwise would have had.
The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalized one than viriculture which I once ventured to use. It was slightly at odds with Galton's preferred definition, given in a lecture to the newly formed Sociological Society at the London School of Economics in Unlike Quetelet, however, Galton did not exalt the "average man" but decried him as mediocre.
Galton and his statistical heir Karl Pearson developed what was called the biometrical approach to eugenics, which developed new and complex statistical models later exported to wholly different fields to describe the heredity of traits. However, with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel 's hereditary laws, two separate camps of eugenics advocates emerged.Reproducing the Future: Anthropology, Kinship, and the New Reproductive Technologies [Marilyn Strathern] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
This volume marks an epoch of sorts. The essays belong to, and the majority were written during, the time when the Bill for the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act () . In an essay on ‘milk-kinship’, Peter Parkes recounts epics and legends from Greek, Celtic, and other pasts to demonstrate what he calls ‘allegiance fostering’ Reproducing the future: essays on anthropology, kinship, and the new reproductive technologies.
New York: Routledge. Crapanzano, Vincent Imaginative Horizons: An Essay in Literary-Phylo- sophical Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Engeli, Isabelle Reproducing the Future: Anthropology, Kinship, and the New Reproductive Technologies.
|T. Gross: Humanisation Ends: The NRTs||The NRT will challenge the most basic assumptions we make about family, about father and mother, parenthood and kinship, and bring about the possibility that the basic network for our sense of belonging may not exist in a few decades.|
|What's Related||Sexual Taboos[ edit ] Taboos are actions that are looked down on from the society as a whole. They are often deemed as inappropriate or illegal especially when regarding sexual behavior.|
New York: Routledge. Swiss National Advisory Commission on Biomedical Ethics This essay critically evaluates Judith Butler's recent writings on kinship.
In this work, Butler challenges the universalist assumptions of psychoanalysis, hoping to lay the analytical groundwork for imagining new forms of familial relationship.
Butler examines the way that anthropology and psychoanalysis have constructed the incest taboo as necessitating heteronormative forms of kinship. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
Jun 11, · Anthropology essay future kinship new reproducing reproductive technologies >>> CLICK HERE TO CONTINUE Essays gre Great resource of topics for a argumentation essay for high school and college students should sex education be increased in schools in an attempt to curb.