The Federal Bureaucracy Line Organizations and Managerial Presidents The president must oversee the executive bureaucracy, which includes what are known as line organizations, or the federal agencies that report directly to the president.
The exception is the Justice Department, which is headed by the Attorney General, who is also a member of the President's Cabinet. The Secretaries are responsible for directing the department's policy and for overseeing its operation.
Cabinet secretaries are usually torn between their responsibilities as presidential advisers and heads of their departments. As the first woman Cabinet member, Frances Perkins served for 12 years, helping draft legislation such as the Social Security Act and the first federal minimum wage laws.
Each has a special area of policy, although their responsibilities are still very broad. The organization of each is quite complex, but they have some things in common.
All Secretaries have a Deputy or Undersecretary, as well as a host of Assistant Secretaries, who all direct major programs within the department. Most departments are divided into bureaus, divisions, and sections.
For example, the FBI lies within the domain of the Justice Department, and the Secret Service is currently within the Treasury Departmeny agency, but soon to be moved under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. Government Corporations Government corporations do not belong to any department — they stand on their own.
They are different from other agencies in that they are businesses created by Congress, and they charge fees for their services. Like any other business, government corporations have private competition — such as Federal Express and United Parcel Service — and sometimes state competition — such as the New Jersey Transit Authority.
At the time of its creation, NASA was assumed by many to be a defense-related agency. Today, it brings nations together in highly publicized efforts like the International Space Station shown here.
Independent Agencies Independent agencies closely resemble Cabinet departments, but they are smaller and less complex. Generally, they have narrower areas of responsibility than do Cabinet departments. Most of these agencies are not free from presidential control and are independent only in the sense that they are not part of a department.
Congress creates them as separate agencies for many reasons, practical as well as symbolic. However, it is an independent agency because the space program has many other purposes than the defense of the nation.
The ATF is a division of the Department of the Treasury that regulates alcohol, tobacco, and firearms. Regulatory Agencies These agencies regulate important parts of the economy, making rules for large industries and businesses that affect the interests of the public. Because regulatory commissions are "watchdogs" that by their very nature need to operate independently, they are not part of a department, and the President does not directly control most of them.
Each commission has from 5 to 11 members appointed by the President, but the President cannot remove them for the length of their terms in office. Examples of these commissions are the Securities and Exchange Commission, which regulates the stock market, brokers, and investment practices.
Another well-known commission is the Federal Reserve Board that governs the nation's monetary policy. The Environmental Protection Agency serves as a guardian over the nation's environment, making and enforcing standards for the industrial and commercial sectors. With over 2, different agencies, the federal bureaucracy is almost certain to run into problems with organization, overlapping responsibilities, and efficiency.
Almost every recent President has come into office determined to refashion and trim the bureaucracy.
However, none has been able to make more than minor adjustments. Well-established agencies have lives of their own, and are difficult to change.
Besides, the country has large, complex, needs requiring special attention. A large bureaucracy is a part of the government's attempt to meet those needs.An exodus of civil servants, a lack of political appointees and anticipation of budget cuts have contributed to a diminished federal workforce.
The Roots of Bureaucracy. Bureaucracy was borrowed from the French bureaucratie, which itself was formed by combining bureau (“desk”) and -cratie (a suffix denoting a kind of government).
The English word can refer to an entire body of unelected government officials or to the problematic system (often filled with red tape) that may result from administration by bureaucrats. Along with the Vice President, the President's Cabinet members are his most important advisors.
This picture shows President Reagan, Vice President Bush, and Cabinet members in the Oval Office. Even the experts can't agree on the total number of federal government agencies, commissions, and. Any power that is unbalanced immediately shifts to becoming tyrannical.
It is a trend that is historically precedented, and it will continue to rear its putrid face if we further allow government to believe that it can legislate freedoms, and now dictate through the executive branch's tentacles in the federal . Harry Robbins "Bob" Haldeman (October 27, – November 12, ) was an American political aide and businessman, best known for his service as White House Chief of Staff to President Richard Nixon and his consequent involvement in the Watergate Affair..
Born in California, Haldeman would serve in the Navy Reserves in World War II and attend the University of California, Los Angeles. Remember that Standard Forms are produced with the intent of having you believe that you are constrained by the questions as posed, by the space as constrained, and by the language as restricted.