Meaning and Symbolism View Larger Image The Celtic Cross is essentially a combination of two of the most basic shapes that appear in the symbology of the ages — the circle and the cross.
The Iron Age is the age of the "Celt" in Britain. Over the or so years leading up to the first Roman invasion a Celtic culture established itself throughout the British Isles. Who were these Celts?
For a start, the concept of a "Celtic" people is a modern and somewhat romantic reinterpretation of history. The "Celts" as we traditionaly regard them exist largely in the magnificence of their art and the words of the Romans who fought them. The trouble with the reports of the Romans is that they were a mix of reportage and political propaganda.
It was politically expedient for the Celtic peoples to be coloured as barbarians and the Romans as a great civilizing force.
And history written by the winners is always suspect. Where did they come from? What we do know is that the people we call Celts gradually infiltrated Britain over the course of the centuries between about and B.
There was probably never an organized Celtic invasion; for one thing the Celts were so fragmented and given to fighting among themselves that the idea of a concerted invasion would have been ludicrous. The Celts were a group of peoples loosely tied by similar language, religion, and cultural expression.
They were not centrally governed, and quite as happy to fight each other as any non-Celt. They were warriors, living for the glories of battle and plunder. They were also the people who brought iron working to the British Isles. The advent of iron The use of iron had amazing repercussions.
First, it changed trade and fostered local independence. Trade was essential during the Bronze Agefor not every area was naturally endowed with the necessary ores to make bronze. Iron, on the other hand, was relatively cheap and available almost everywhere.
Hill forts The time of the "Celtic conversion" of Britain saw a huge growth in the number of hill forts throughout the region. These were often small ditch and bank combinations encircling defensible hilltops.
Some are small enough that they were of no practical use for more than an individual family, though over time many larger forts were built.
The curious thing is that we don't know if the hill forts were built by the native Britons to defend themselves from the encroaching Celts, or by the Celts as they moved their way into hostile territory. Usually these forts contained no source of water, so their use as long term settlements is doubtful, though they may have been useful indeed for withstanding a short term siege.
Many of the hill forts were built on top of earlier causewayed camps. Celtic family life The basic unit of Celtic life was the clan, a sort of extended family. The term "family" is a bit misleading, for by all accounts the Celts practiced a peculiar form of child rearing; they didn't rear them, they farmed them out.
Children were actually raised by foster parents.
The foster father was often the brother of the birth-mother. Clans were bound together very loosely with other clans into tribes, each of which had its own social structure and customs, and possibly its own local gods.
Housing The Celts lived in huts of arched timber with walls of wicker and roofs of thatch. The huts were generally gathered in loose hamlets. In several places each tribe had its own coinage system. Farming The Celts were farmers when they weren't fighting. One of the interesting innovations that they brought to Britain was the iron plough.
Earlier ploughs had been awkward affairs, basically a stick with a pointed end harnessed behind two oxen. They were suitable only for ploughing the light upland soils.
The heavier iron ploughs constituted an agricultural revolution all by themselves, for they made it possible for the first time to cultivate the rich valley and lowland soils.These early Celts were known as the ‘Urnfield people’ and they probably spoke a proto-Celtic language.
By the 8th century BCE, iron had replaced bronze-working and the cultural group is then referred to by scholars as the ‘Hallstatt culture’. After the Great War, and into the s, Rangers took over from Celtic as the dominant force in Scottish football.
Rangers won 8 league titles to Celtic's 2 during the s. Celtic, however, continued to find success in the Scottish Cup, winning it three times in the 20s. There is considerable debate over whether they are an original Christian symbol or something that was adopted or modified from earlier native religions.
By exact definition, an Irish Cross or Celtic Cross has to have four semi-circles cut away at the four points where the horizontal and vertical beams meet. Languages change over time, and people move, and how much modern-day Celtic peoples, language and cultures are related to the ancient Celts is an open question.
Nevertheless the Celts, both ancient and modern, have provided humanity with some fantastic art, culture and stories of martial prowess. The Celts - History and Archeology From the Greek and Roman historians who first encountered the Celts (around BC) we have developed our basic image of the fierce Celtic warrior, woad-painted and naked, howling like a banshee.
Clondalkin - History. the debate over the history of celtic Celtic High Crosses: Castell Henllys. Phonology: The bodhran is an Irish drum measuring 12 to 24 inches in diameter and a depth of between 4 to 8 inches. ‘World triumph in three games. Get all the facts on leslutinsduphoenix.com · Go to the source.